Technology glossary


3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing)

The construction of a three-dimensional physical object layer by layer from a digital design. In a process called material extrusion, a 3D printer precisely places a semi-liquid material to form each layer of the object according to the digital model. 3D printing can create complex objects, such as building components, on-demand, and overcome limitations with traditional manufacturing processes.

2G technology

Second generation of connectivity standards that added digital encryption of conversations, better quality calls, and SMS messaging to first-generation standards. Cellular IoT networks, including those in buildings, often use 2G technology due to the comparatively low power and cost.

3G technology

Third generation of connectivity standards with data transmission rates several times faster than previous cellular technologies. These higher transmission rates allowed users to connect to the internet and stream audio and video.

4G LTE technology

Fourth generation of connectivity standards with data transmission rates that allow users to display digital media, such as streaming videos and rich multimedia apps, without buffering delays and loading issues. Facilitated the rise of the smart phone.

5G technology

Fifth generation of connectivity standards with data transmission rates that enable technologies such as self-driving cars and the Internet of Things (IoT). 5G opens the door to wider adoption of advanced technologies and facilitates the development of new technologies that require these higher data rates.

AC adapter

An external power supply device that allows current from an electricity socket to be used by a computer device for power and battery charging.


A system component that moves or controls other parts of the system based on information received. In IoT systems, the actuator acts on data from sensors. For example, consider a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor in a meeting room. When the sensor detects a certain.

API (application programming interface), or web API

A set of protocols, routines, and commands that allow one software program to send data to another software program without a user’s participation. APIs can allow different enterprise, property management, and building-level systems to exchange information, increasing automation and operational efficiency.

Artificial intelligence (AI)  

The ability of a computer or computer-controlled device to perform tasks, such as learning, problem-solving, and decision-making, that usually require human intelligence. AI can automate repetitive tasks like invoice processing and routine customer contacts. AI has several uses in buildings, such as energy management, leasing, and space management.


An attachment is a document sent with an email message. Numerous types of files can be sent this way (e.g., PDF's, Word documents, JPEGs).

Augmented reality 

A technology that superimposes computer-generated images and information onto a user’s view of reality, typically through a headset, smartphone, or other equipment. Applications in real estate management include for maintenance and repair work and to replace physical signage and wayfinding.


The use of technology to complete tasks and processes with limited human involvement. Automation can increase operational efficiency and reduce the need for manual tasks such as data entry and document processing.

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Back end  

Back end refers to the part of an application that is accessed and controlled by a software developer or administrative user and performs essential tasks not apparent to the end user. This compares to the front end, which the end user interacts with and manipulates.


Bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. Bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth. Higher bandwidth allows for better video and audio streaming and other data-intensive applications.

Big data  

Large, diverse sets of data points collected from digital processes and operations that can be mined for information. Big data can be analyzed to optimize operations, uncover areas of concern, and streamline processes. Analysis of big data produced by a building can allow real estate managers and their teams to improve operational efficiency and identify issues.


A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of measurement in computing. 8 bits make up 1 byte.


The rate at which data is transferred and processed, typically calculated according to the number of bits, or units of data, per second. High bitrates provide better functionality for rich media, including audio and video streaming.


A decentralized, encrypted digital ledger, shared across a peer-to-peer network, consisting of strings of records called blocks. The technology behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, blockchain is used to confirm digital transactions. The real estate industry is using blockchain technology with the emergence of cryptocurrency financing. It can also be used to confirm chain of title.


A wireless networking technology standard that uses short-wave radio frequencies to exchange data between hardware components at short distances, typically around 30 feet. The technology allows interconnection between different Bluetooth-enabled devices, such as smartphones, beacons, and sensors, and has wide application in IoT/smart home technology.


An automated software program that performs routine tasks like interactions with other software programs and users. Bots are used in customer service chats, including contacts with rental prospects, by digitally replicating human questions and responses to simulate interactions.


A software program that allows you to “surf” the web. Popular web browsers include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, and Internet Explorer. Each browser may yield different search results based on the methodology it employs.

Building area network (BAN) 

A network or several networks that cover an entire building, allowing hardware such as computers, mobile devices, smart meters, and sensors to exchange data.

Building automation/management system (BAS/BMS) 

A control system that manages and automates the functions and processes of building hardware and equipment, including HVAC, lighting, access control, fire-safety, and other systems. A BAS is typically controlled by an operator through a single interface (dashboard) and, when utilized properly, can result in efficiency and cost-effectiveness in operations.

Building information modeling (BIM) 

A digital representation of the physical characteristics and functions of a building, created through computer-aided design and 3D modeling. BIM supports decision-making in architecture, construction, and operations and maintenance.

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When you visit, view, or read a web page, the data is "cached," meaning it is temporarily stored on your computer for immediate retrieval. The next time you want that page, instead of requesting the file from the web server, your web browser just accesses it from the cache so that the page loads quickly.


Computer-aided design (CAD) is a type of software that allows users to create 2D and 3D design and modelling. CAD is used by architects, engineers, artists, and other professionals to create precise technical drawings.


A computer program designed to replicate human conversation by text or voice. Chatbots are often used for customer service interactions, such as scheduling prospect visits at multifamily communities.

Cloud computing

The on-demand delivery of technology services over the internet, without reliance on local hardware, enabling greater flexibility and often computing power. Server processing, data storage, applications, and many other computing functions are available via cloud.


A string of characters in a specific programming language that serves as a set of instructions or rules that tell a computer or software program what to do. The term can also be used to refer to the process of putting together or writing that set of instructions or rules.


Compression is the reduction of the size of a file. Compressed files take up less memory and can be downloaded or sent over the internet faster. They must be decompressed (returned to regular file size) before the contents can be opened and used.


A piece of code or data created by a web server and stored on a user's computer. A cookie is used to keep track of the user's usage patterns and preferences.


A form of digital currency on a string of data organized and monitored on a decentralized, encrypted peer-to-peer network called a blockchain. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and BNB Smart Chain are some examples of cryptocurrencies. The real estate industry is beginning to use cryptocurrency for investment financing in a process called decentralized financing, or DeFi.


Cybersecurity is a process designed to protect your company, property, computers, devices, and network from cybercrime. This involves preventing unintended and unauthorized access, change, and damage, and protecting the private data of the company, clients, properties, and tenants/residents.

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Data lake

A storage repository that holds raw data in different forms and from various sources. Data is tagged for easy retrieval so that it can be accessed, processed, and analyzed. For example, a data lake for a property management company might include all data collected from property sensors and systems.

Deep learning

A type of machine learning that uses layers of algorithms modeled to learn and make improvements like the human brain. The self-driving car is an example of an emerging technology that uses deep learning. Some building energy management systems use deep learning to make real-time adjustments to operations, driving efficiency.


The conversion of something to a digital form. The process of digitalization can be applied to text, images, companies, business models, products, and industries. Real estate management is currently undergoing digitalization.

Digital twin

A virtual digital representation or replica of a physical object or system. The digital twin is updated with real-time data so that it is a direct counterpart to the actual object or system, allowing users to investigate and predict its operations. Digital twins of buildings are emerging as a tool to gain operational efficiency and prevent and address costly malfunctions.

Direct digital control (DDC)

A programmable digital device that allows an operator to monitor and control a process or system. Often used in HVAC, lighting, access control, and other building systems, direct digital controls allow users to pre-set functions, such as time schedules and temperatures, leading to greater operational efficiency and reduced burden on staff.


A significant change, often occurring quickly, to an industry, business model, or product line due to a new technology. Examples of disruptions that have impacted both business and society include the smartphone and social media. The real estate industry is currently in the middle of a disruption from the proliferation of new technologies, including for financing, design and construction, and management.


A network domain is a specific group of connected servers, workstations, and devices assigned to a specific group of users through rules, protocols, and authentication so that they can exchange data and access resources. An internet or email domain is a name assigned to and associated with an internet or email address. For example, in and, the domain is “mycompany.”


Downloading is the method by which users access and save, or "pull down," software or other files to their own computers from a remote computer via the internet.


An unmanned, remotely piloted aircraft. Drones are often equipped with cameras to enable observations and inspections. They have maintenance, marketing, and leasing applications in real estate management.

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Edge computing

With edge computing, information and data processing occur near the periphery of a network, closer to the sources of data—at IoT devices, for example—instead of in a central server environment. This reduces latency and bandwidth use. Building technology systems may use an edge computing framework.


Encryption is a security measure that converts electronic data to an unrecognizable or encoded form so that it cannot be easily accessed or understood by unauthorized parties.

End user

The end user is the person who actually uses a product, including a software application, website, or computer hardware. Building systems such as lighting and HVAC also have end users (e.g., building staff, occupants).

End-to-end principle

An approach to computer networking that says the key applications and functions of a computer system, such as security, should be in the end points of the system and not in the intermediary points.

Energy management system (EMS)

A software platform used to control and monitor a building’s energy consumption. An EMS allows building operators to manage energy use by investigating abnormal consumption and identifying ways to improve the efficiency of building systems.


Ethernet is the most common way of connecting computers on a network with a wired connection. It is a type of local area network (LAN) technology, providing a simple interface for connecting multiple devices.

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Face recognition technology

Technology that analyzes a human face to confirm identity. In real estate management, face recognition technology is primarily being used in access control systems, where the system scans the face to confirm identity and allow entry to a building or space.


The use of technology to support finance and accounting activities and processes. Fintech is being applied to real estate finance and the mortgage industry, as well as enterprise and property accounting.


A firewall is part of a computer system or network designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication. A firewall is set to restrict data into and out of the computer system based on the organization’s security policies and protocols.


Firmware is a software program permanently stored on a computer’s ROM to run its core processes and communicate with other types of software. It acts as an intermediary between hardware and software.

Front end

The front end is the component of a computer system that the user interacts with and manipulates. This compares to the back end, the part of an application that performs essential tasks not apparent to the end user.

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Graphics interchange format (GIF) is a graphics file format. Because GIF files are compressed, they can be quickly and easily transmitted over a network. GIF is one of the main graphics formats on the internet.

Graphical user interface (GUI) 

A system of visual components, such as shapes, images, buttons, and icons, that allow the user to interact with a computer system.


HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a digital interface standard that allows for the transmission of high-definition, high-bandwidth audio and video data over a single cable. TVs, computers, surveillance equipment, and other digital devices are commonly equipped with HDMI ports to receive and process high-definition media.


Hyper-text markup language (HTML) is a set of symbols inserted into files intended for display on the internet. The symbols tell web browsers how to display words and images (e.g., which color, font, and type size to use) and direct browsers to link to other pages on the internet via hyperlinks.


HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the communications protocol used to transfer data, such as text, images, videos, and other media, over the internet. Addresses of websites begin with http://.


HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is the encrypted version of HTTP, the communications protocol used to transfer data, such as text, images, videos, and other media, over the internet. Addresses of websites begin with https:// when data is being transferred over a secure connection.

Hybrid meeting

A meeting with a mixture of in-person and remote attendees.


A word, phrase, image, icon, or other element of a web page that allows you to go to another web page, document, or other data by clicking on it.

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Internet of things (IoT)

Physical objects and devices connected via the internet, enabling remote control, the collection and exchange of data, and other capabilities. In a building, equipment, sensors, beacons, meters, access control points, appliances, and other devices can be interconnected through an IoT network. The IoT network allows building operators to monitor and control different building systems and collect data on space usage, the indoor environment, tenant behaviors, and other areas of property operations.

Interval meter

A digital monitoring device that collects energy usage data at regular time intervals. Interval data collection capabilities are available for both private and utility meters. Data from an interval meter allows building management to detect malfunctioning equipment and identify opportunities for energy efficiency based on usage trends.


An intranet is a private, internal internet specific to an organization or group.

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Java is a programming language that is commonly used in the development of client-server web applications. Java often enables the interactivity of websites and other user interfaces.


A type of image file. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which was the committee that created the file format known as JPEG. The format is commonly used for photos displayed on the internet.

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Kilobyte (kB)

1,000 bytes. Files with sizes in kilobytes will typically include text and little to no graphics.

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The use of technology to support law firms, legal teams, and their work and processes.

Local area network (LAN)

A group of devices connected over a network in one physical location, such as an office or building. In an office, a LAN might connect computers, printers, scanners, and other office equipment. In a building, a LAN might connect devices such as sensors, beacons, meters, and other components to support efficient operations.


Long-range, low-power radio, a connectivity technology used in M2M and IoT systems. LoRa allows devices to collect and send data over long distances, up to 5 kilometers in urban settings and 15 kilometers in rural areas.


Low-power, wide-area network, a network that requires small amounts of power to connect devices over a relatively large area. An LPWAN base station and transceivers can run on inexpensive batteries for years, allowing them to exchange small amounts of data at ranges greater than 10 miles. LPWANs can power IoT networks at the neighborhood or city level.

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Machine learning

A form of artificial intelligence that allows a computer system to “learn” and adapt without human intervention or instructions. Machine learning uses algorithms to detect patterns of data, draw inferences, and predict outcomes that can improve functionality.

Machine-to-machine (M2M) technology

Machine-to-machine technology describes the wired or wireless exchange of data between physical devices, such as industrial equipment, computers, sensors, and meters, with little to no human intervention. M2M allows operators to collect, monitor, and analyze data to improve processes and prevent malfunctions.


Malware is short for malicious software, which is a software program that has been developed to do harm to other computers. Malware includes viruses, worms, and spyware.

Mediated reality

A technology whereby the user’s perception of the real world is altered by digital information, typically through a wearable or hand-held device. With the ability to impose visual and audio information on the landscape, mediated reality has applications in building maintenance and leasing, and can replace physical signage, such as directional and tenant signage.


Computer memory is an internal device or system, such as a semiconductor device, that stores data for temporary or long-term use by the operating system, hardware, and software.

Mesh network

A network of devices and nodes without a centralized access point, where each device transmits its own data and serves as a relay for data from other devices. Mesh networks ensure continuous connection, limiting downtime and enabling the flow of data between devices in an IoT system.


A virtual space where users can interact with the digital environment and one another. The metaverse uses virtual and augmented reality, among other technologies, to create a graphically detailed and highly immersive digital world. Some metaverse platforms include the buying, selling, leasing, and management of virtual real estate.

Mixed reality

Technology that combines human perception of the real world with a virtual world. Mixed reality allows the user to manipulate and work with both the real, physical and the virtual elements of the environment. Mixed reality can be used in training programs, leasing, and maintenance.

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Natural language processing (NLP)

A branch of artificial intelligence technology that allows a computer program to understand and produce language in spoken and written form. NLP is often used in customer service applications, such as a chatbot on a multifamily community website that interacts with and schedules visits for leasing prospects.

Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) – also known as LTE Cat-NB1

A low-power, wide-area network (LPWAN) communications standard created by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an international organization that develops telecommunications reports and specifications to facilitate functional, cost-effective, and stable technologies. A network on the NB-IoT standard requires small amounts of power to connect devices over a relatively large area, over 10 miles.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is the software that manages all a computer's processes and allows programs and applications to run. The most prominent operating systems are Microsoft Windows and macOS.

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Portable document format (PDF) is a file type that can be read using software called Adobe Acrobat Reader or other PDF readers.

PDF reader

A program that allows the user to open and read a PDF file. Adobe Acrobat Reader is a common PDF viewer.


Phishing is a type of email fraud in which the perpetrator sends out emails that appear to come from a legitimate service or reputable company, such as a bank or an email service provider. These emails aim to lure recipients to reveal confidential information that the perpetrator can use for their financial advantage - for example, online banking log-in details and passwords. This is the most common form of hacking.


The measurement and analysis of distances and spatial relationships using the medium of photography, often aerial photography using cameras attached to drones or other aircraft. Photogrammetry can be useful for property inspections, site analysis, and to create 3D models of spaces.

Predictive analysis

The use of historical data to develop statistical models that help make predictions about future functionality and operations in support of better performance and greater efficiency. Predictive analysis may be combined with artificial intelligence/machine learning.


A processor, also known a microprocessor or central processing unit (CPU), is the central part of a computing device. It performs functions; receives, interprets, and transmits data; and carries out operations. Processors are found in many types of devices, including desktop computers, smartphones, tablets, and in parts of modern building equipment, such as chillers and access control equipment.


The digitalization of the real estate industry, including through the deployment of building-level hardware, such as computers, sensors, beacons, meters, and other devices, to support and improve operations by detecting problems, capturing data for analysis, and enabling remote control capabilities. Proptech has wide application in property management, including for building operations and maintenance, resident/tenant engagement, management of the indoor environment, and other areas.

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Quantum computing

A developing field of computer science that employs quantum mechanics to solve complex problems that the fastest supercomputers are unable to solve.


A request for data or information from a database. The request must be made in one of several query languages. The most widely used query language is Structured Query Language (SQL).


QWERTY denotes the standard English-language computer keyboard (the term comes from the first keys on the left in the top row of letters).

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Random access memory (RAM) is a computer’s “short-term memory,” an internal silicon chip where data for current applications and processes is stored and retrieved.


A type of malicious software that takes over or blocks access to a network or system until a ransom is paid to the perptrator of the attack.


A file format used for data compression. RAR files are similar to Zip files, with proprietary software necessary to decompress and access the compressed files.


Resolution refers to the number of distinct pixels that make up the display on a computer monitor. It is denoted in DPI (dots per inch). The higher the resolution, the finer and smoother the images appear when displayed at a given size.


Read-only memory (ROM) is data permanently stored by the manufacturer on an internal silicon chip to run the computer’s operating system and software. This data is permanently stored and can’t be altered.


A feed or channel that compiles content, such as news stories or blog posts, from different web pages into a single stream. RSS eliminates the need for the user to visit the different websites on which the content is posted.

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Search engine

A search engine enables a computer user to search for information on the internet. Examples include and

Semi-structured data

Semi-structured data is organized or identified in some way but is not arranged in a way that makes it easy to retrieve and analyze.


A device that detects and responds to physical stimuli, such as motion, temperature, light, air content, and other environmental conditions. A sensor might relay information or data to other hardware or software, triggering processes and causing changes in automatic systems, or convert that data into user-friendly information to support human-driven operations.

Examples of sensors used in building operations include motion detectors that turn lights on when a person is detected and carbon dioxide detectors that increase ventilation airflow when the CO2 level in a space reaches a certain level. Sensors have many other uses in property management.


SEO, or search engine optimization, is the practice of making adjustments to certain aspects of a website, such as the language and terminology used in the text, to help improve its ranking or priority on search engines.


A server is a computer that handles requests for data, email, file transfers, and other network services from other computers.


A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) cellular technology, created by a private company, that connects sensors and devices in an IoT system. A Sigfox network requires small amounts of power to connect devices over a relatively large area.

SIM card

A SIM (Subscriber Identify Module) card is a small memory card that contains unique identifiers, allowing the mobile service provider to associate the physical mobile device (e.g., smartphone) with the individual customer account.

Singularity day

A hypothetical point in time when technology becomes uncontrolled and irreversible, and artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence, permanently transforming reality. Experts think that exponential advancements in technology, occurring in a matter of decades, will erase the boundaries between computer and human cognition and cause AI machines to acquire capabilities that humans cannot predict.


Short messaging service. A service that allows mobile phone users to send and receive text messages over their cellular network. An SMS is limited to 160 characters and includes only text

Smart bin

A waste or recycling container equipped with sensors that collect and transmit data on fill levels, types of materials, and usage patterns, along with other information on its use. Smart bins are often part of an IoT network and can make waste management more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly.

Smart building

A technologically equipped building with interconnected systems, components, and devices to enable efficient, effective use of resources and create safe, productive environments for occupants.

In a smart building, the lighting, HVAC, access control, electric, and other systems are connected via a network, creating efficiency in operations and providing residents/tenants a wider range of amenities and services. A smart building may also be connected to other buildings in a geographical area, such as a neighborhood or city, and the smart grid.

Smart city

A technologically equipped municipality that uses technology to solve problems and make life better and more convenient for its residents. Smart cities employ sensors and data to connect infrastructure, utilities, neighborhoods, buildings, and homes and automate city functions. The rise of smart cities has also increased concerns regarding privacy and tracking.

Smart grid

An electricity delivery network where power and information flow along supply lines, allowing the system to detect and adapt to changes in energy usage. Smart grids deliver power with greater efficiency and less strain on power plants.

Smart home

A technologically equipped home with interconnected systems, components, and devices, offering convenience and safe, enjoyable environments for the home’s residents. In a smart home, the lighting, HVAC, access points, power, entertainment, communication, and other systems are connected via a network, allowing users to easily control the components with mobile and computer applications.

Smart meter

A device that provides tracking of energy consumption in real-time or frequent intervals and has the ability to send that energy consumption data through a network. Utility smart meters send the data to the utility, which may provide that data to customers so that they can better manage energy usage.

Software 1.0 vs. 2.0

The first release of a software program may be referred to as the “1.0” version, while the subsequent release is the “2.0” version, with additional versions numbered sequentially. Subsequent software releases typically have additional features, along with fixes to issues and errors in the previous version.

Software as a service (SaaS)

An approach to software licensing and distribution where a software provider makes an application available to end users over the cloud, eliminating the need to install the application on the end users’ computers. The software provider charges a fee or uses a subscription model for delivery and maintenance of the application.

Software integration

Enabling different software systems to work together by merging their operations and workflows. Integrated systems streamline tasks by eliminating steps in business processes and giving businesses new capabilities. For example, property accounting data might be seamlessly transferred to corporate finance software, without the need for manual data entry, through a software integration.

Solid-state drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a type of computer storage device like a hard-disk drive (HDD), except an SSD does not have any moving parts and uses different technology than the magnetic storage used in an HDD. As a result, SSDs are faster than HDDs, providing better computer performance.


Spam refers to unsolicited emails and text messages sent for advertising purposes.


Rules, guidelines, conditions, and parameters for a given technology that ensure its successful implementation and operation. Standards are often developed by private companies or one of several standards development organizations (SDOs). They permit functionality and interoperability with other technologies.


Computer storage is a device that retains and preserves digital data. Examples include hard disks, integrated into a computer, external hard drives, memory cards, and USB drives.

Structured data

Structured data is organized and identified in a way that makes it easily stored, retrieved, and manipulated.

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A keyword assigned to a piece of information, such as an image or block of text, that describes it and allows it to be indexed and retrieved using that keyword. In HTML code, a tag is a piece of code that indicates where and how text, images, and hyperlinks should appear on a web page.


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A set of protocols that allows data transmission and communication on the internet.

Technology readiness level (TRL)

A method for assessing the maturity of a particular technology. TRL helps developers and users determine when a technology is ready for use.


A successive series of email, text, or web messages between different users, as one user sends a message and another responds.


Also known as a trackpad, a touchpad is a flat, responsive panel on a laptop computer that allows the user to control the graphical interface through the cursor. A touchpad is an alternative to a mouse and performs similar functions.

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Unstructured data

Unstructured data includes different types of data from multiple systems and devices that is not organized or identified in a standard or consistent way, making it harder to process and analyze.


To unzip a ZIP file is to extract and decompress compressed files from it. If you are sent a ZIP file via email, you’ll need to unzip it before you can access the files inside it.


An upload is when a user sends or transfers data or a file from one system to another. For example, a user might upload spreadsheet reports to a cloud- or browser-based software system or images from their desktop hard drive to a company server.


A URL (unique resource locator) or web address is the string of characters you type into a browser to access a particular website or other resource on the internet.


The person using a computer system.


The degree to which a computer system is intuitive and easy to manipulate in its design and functionality.

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Virtual meeting

A meeting conducted over a digital collaboration platform, such as Zoom or Microsoft Teams. Virtual meetings are often interactive and include video and audio, chat tools, and other collaboration features.

Virtual reality

The use of digital technology to simulate the physical environment. Virtual reality creates the effect of an immersive, three-dimensional world that the user can react and respond to, often using a headset or handheld device. Virtual reality has applications in leasing, especially property tours.

Virtual tour

The use of digital technology to simulate the experience of touring a property or rental unit. Virtual tours take many forms, with different levels of interactivity and detail. A virtual tour might be a static replication of the space, constructed from photos and videos, or it could take the form of an interactive, three-dimensional world that the user experiences using a headset or handheld device.


A virus is a piece of programming code inserted into other programming to cause damage. Viruses can be sent in many forms but are often transmitted via email messages that, when opened, may erase data or cause damage to your hard disk.

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Web 2.0
The current generation of the internet that features interaction, rich graphics, and user-generated content. Web 2.0 is contrasted with Web 1.0, which relied on s
tatic websites.

Web 3.0
Web 3.0 is a proposed, developing version of the internet that features decentralization, user control, and openness, with wide availability and connectivity. Other technologies like blockchain, artificial intelligence, and IoT are key drivers of Web 3.0.
Wi-Fi is a technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate via a wireless signal.



A wireless networking standard that uses low-power digital radio signals to transmit data between devices in an IoT system.


To zip files is to archive and compress them into one file of smaller size using a program such as WinZip. Zipping makes files smaller before sending them via email.

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